The truth in behind-the-scenes photos

Mental Health

Messy hair (don’t care), bright coloured heels awry, outfit perfect (but hours old): this is the photo someone snapped when you weren’t expecting it, but thought it cute to share anyways. These are the photos we share on social media of our wild nights and exhausted mornings. Imperfect, but planned. We laugh about these moments, when things didn’t go perfectly. These are what we say are our happily shared “behind the scenes” photos.

These can, and should, be compared to our second exhibit: photos post panic-attack. Messy hair (from being fanned by a worried flight attendant), bright coloured mask (allowed to be removed to help with breathing, but kept on because of COVID anxiety), outfit perfectly planned for the airplane (but completely irrelevant to the panic): this is the photo you take to remind yourself of how it felt. I was in it. It was me who scream-cried on a crowded airplane. Me, who could not breathe. I gasped for air, clutching the overheating scarf like a life vest. The world spun and my eyesight blurred. The flight attendants assured me I wasn’t dying; I knew it but did not believe it.

A little over 2 weeks ago, I boarded a plane traveling back from South to North America (an eleven hour flight). Despite my best efforts to pay and upgrade my seat, I sat in economy where both my eating disorder and I quickly realized I did not fit in the chair between the two immovable arm rests. In actuality, the objective reality of “fitting” or “not fitting” does not matter. I potentially could have squeezed in. All I knew was that due to my body size I was not perfect for the average seat. Add to this excruciating sciatic pain, leg spasms triggering medical anxiety, and the stress of two weeks of traveling. After two attempts to quietly barter for support from busy flight attendants, I had a panic attack. 

Now, being equipped with an army of flight attendants while mid-panic attack provided great insight into what worked, and what doesn’t work, for me in those moments. Enjoy a brief ranking.

Attendant #1, fanning me with a safety pamphlet: 6/10, the sweating and claustrophobic thoughts appreciated it

Attendant #2, holding my hand: 5/10, no better or worse for it

Attendant #3, telling me to “be calm”: 1/10, thanks, hadn’t tried that

Attendant #4, asking repeatedly if I needed to get off the plane before departure: 2/10, the anxiety was terrified they’d kick me off no matter what I said

Attendant #5, sneaking me food from first class: 8/10, bottled water meant the water wouldn’t shake out of the cups in my hand and the brownie was great

Attendant #6 and #7, briefing each other on the shit show going down: no ranking, potentially the same as previous attendants but I wasn’t keeping track

I took this photo, hungover from the true terror I experienced moments before, as a tool. I could write about this attack as a therapeutic exercise. All I want to do is delete it. Forget that I couldn’t fit in a seat, forget that I embarrassed myself, forget that it ever happened. 

This is not an ode to a more inclusive world built for all. Nor is it a memento of strength and perseverance. This is, simply, what I want to see. I want to know I’m not alone; not alone in not fitting in seats, not alone in panic attacks, just…not alone.

A Message to My Eating Disorder (Warning: Language)

Mental Health

Warning: Language is a poem written about and dedicated to my eating disorder. I’ve been told, by myself and others, to be small with my voice and small with my body: this is not that.

Fuck you

Fuck you for telling me that I’m worthless and useless

And promising me that I could be something great

Like I’m not that already

Telling me I need you

Like I don’t already know that I need you even if I don’t really need you

Fuck you for making me need you when I’m not supposed to need you

Your toxicity makes me worthless and useless

You make me worthless and useless

Just like you tell me I am

Fuck you for making me feel worthless and useless

Telling me I am nothing close to great without you

Like I could never be great, except for you

Like every sense of pride and joy I’ve ever felt were lies

Lies I tell myself to hide the worthless, useless, hurting

Toxic stop talking stop talking stop talking

Fuck you for making me the person who needs you

And telling me I need you

Promising me I want you

Making me feel that together we could be

Hiding any strength I have to fight back

I am not weak but I am weak with you

You are the one that I hate, and that I hate, and that I will never love but need

Because I am weak and any strength I have to fight back

Is hidden

By you

So fuck you

Fuck you, you fucking asshole that is every voice that tells me not to swear

To be quiet and calm, to fit your idea of who I am

To be small with my voice and to be small with my body

I am six fucking feet tall and god knows how many pounds

Because I’m not allowed to weigh myself because I’m too weak

Fuck you for telling me I’m not loud when I am so fucking loud

My voice echoes down halls and my laugh turns corners and I stand in front of crowds and I am fucking loud

I am vibrant and big and can be confident when you’re not there

Because when you’re there I’m worthless, worthless, useless

And small

Small for you.

But I am six fucking feet tall and god knows how many pounds

With limbs in all directions and a fucking voice that needs to scream sometimes

Not because you make me want to scream, and you make me want to scream

But because I have things to scream about that aren’t you

And I will scream

And fuck you for telling me this won’t work

I’ve read the words of anger from the people who aspire to write the words of anger that inspire people to be the people who write words of anger from a place of aspiration and inspiration and fuck you that can be me

I am authentic and imperative to my world and a force of nature that will destroy and create

Aspiring myself to be great, inspiring others to be great

I can change my world, the world, the world of others

Fuck you for telling me to be small 

And not do any of this

Because I have limbs that go in all directions and fat that stretches my clothes

And fuck you for telling me to be small when I’m anything but

I’m going to scream and change the world

I’m going to scream and change you

I’m going to scream and change me

Fuck you. You will not win. We will not coexist, happily or otherwise.

I will fight. I will scream. I will lead the charge.

I will never stop fighting, screaming, leading the charge. 

So, fight back, scream back, you fucking coward

Because you’re going to need to.

This year, I choose me.

Mental Health

This year, I choose me. It’s not a new year’s resolution as much as a new outlook. It’s not something I can succeed or fail at and not something to grade. It is not something to fear or avoid. I am walking through the forest of life, tripping over roots and slipping on fallen leaves and I am simply choosing a new path: a path where I am the most important. I am leaning into self-care, building safe environments, choosing what I want and need. I choose me. 

Last year, I chose paths that left me in tears. I chose to work late on a night when my father had asked for support in celebrating a small accomplishment – after years fighting against aphasia, he was the expert on the six o’clock news and I missed his segment. I chose to push my emotions aside to be the perfect organizer of an event – at a memorial for violence against women, I did not leave room for me to cry. I chose to work through lunches while struggling with an eating disorder and ignore the echoing voices of every professional on my health care team. I chose to suppress my enthusiasm and limit my intensity, not smile in meetings and not dance in the office, because this is what my performance review said to do. I chose to not walk my dog, more often than not, because I simply did not have the energy. These paths sometimes left me in exhausted, sobbing breakdowns. Sometimes, these paths left me numb. I’m not sure which hurt more.

I call these “choices” because I cannot escape the shame, the guilt, and the embarrassment from what I feel like I should be able to control. Every one of these situations hits on my greatest fears – failing my loved ones, failing my work, failing me. However, as my therapist reminds me, it is never too late for a breath of self-compassion. In the new year of “choosing me”, I choose to reframe. I choose to not accept the same, the guilt, or the embarrassment as is. These so-called choices stemmed from bigger situations and events outside of my control. I didn’t choose to work late, a project demanded it. I didn’t choose to not walk my dog, I truly lacked the energy and strength. In a new year of choosing me, I choose not to own this fault.

This year, I will start a new job (this is a fact). I am turning my back on my dream job (this is hyperbole), abandoning projects I care about (this is guilt), and deserting my passions (this is anxiety). I label each of these (fact, hyperbole, guilt, anxiety) because, in a new year of choosing me, I choose to reframe. Reframing will be an ongoing exercise and I will offer self-compassion as I learn – forgiving myself when I don’t but trying again nonetheless. The details of my old job and my new job don’t matter. What matters is that when my father asks for support in celebrating a small accomplishment, when I want to cry at an emotional event, and at the end of the day when my dog wags her tail, I want to be there. This new job will let me be there, where my old job wouldn’t. This choice still makes me cry, still makes me feel guilt and anxiety. It may for a while. Self-compassion dictates that I make space for these feelings, so I will. I will cry and remind myself of the facts.

This is what is right for me right now. In an effort to address former hyperboles and anxieties, I have come face to face with the fact that there are no “dream jobs” or “perfect choices”. With every changing day and flap of a butterflies’ wings the world will change and you will change with it. There is only what is right for you right now. And if what I care about right now is watching my father on the six o’clock news and walking my dog, then I choose what will achieve this. My old job (not my dream job, just my old job) didn’t allow for this. My new job does.

So, yes, I have accepted a new job that emphasizes 4-day work weeks and flexible hours. And there is no shame in saying I need that right now. But, I am also excited for a boss with crazy coloured hair who laughs when my cat jumps on screen and asks how we make room for authentic emotions in social science research. I’m not forgetting the passion and drive I loved in my former vision of a dream job, I’m just choosing a new mix of these things. 

In the swirl of emotions, I can’t help but realize that my choices may benefit my mental illness as well. That working from home means I can cook and meal prep (great for my eating disorder) and flexible hours means I can explore fitness and hobbies (great for my anxiety). Choosing me isn’t a disaster or a loss or an embarrassment, it actually works on so many different levels. Suddenly all of the self-help books make a bit more sense. Suddenly choosing me makes a bit more sense.

I can choose me in a million different ways. I can choose work-life balance and a new career direction. I can reevaluate my chronic ideas of perfection and focus on current desires and needs. I can do bubble baths when I want and therapy when I need. I can pick a new sewing project and finally explore cosplay, learn how to cook with cauliflower, and explore hiking trails near my home. These desires and needs may be fleeting, and that’s okay. In a year where I choose me, I will validate myself and constantly adjust my goals. There is no fixed perfection, no everlasting goals. Just me. So, I’m choosing to be selfish. Happily, confidently, and still anxiously, choosing to be selfish (my anxiety is always there, but we’re reframing that too). I’m choosing me.

Today I walked my dog. I felt the cool air on my neck, watched the happy swing of my dog’s tail, and decided to choose me.

An Exercise in Vanity and Challenging My Eating Disorder

Mental Health
Photo by Chelsee Taylor,
Makeup and hair by Robin-Miranda Vince, @robinskivinski

This is me.

This is my body.

This is who I am.

I am more than the eating disorder that tries to define me. I am more than the stomach rolls that make me nauseous. I am more than the underarm fat magazines tell me they can help me lose.

I asked for these photos to challenge my anxious thoughts and intrusive self-hate. I talked to the photographer and makeup artist about wearing clothes I normally don’t wear, boasting makeup that accentuates my features, and posing to show off my body. Collaborating with positivity and talent instead of the deal I made with my eating disorder to hide my body, hide my curves, hide my fat, hide me.

The challenge was: there is no difference between me and the gorgeous models I see, accept a talented photographer and make-up artist. You can decide for yourself, but in my mind, we came through pretty damn well.

Because, I am also the stomach rolls that look so gorgeous in this photographer’s camera lens, the underarms that show off a classic style, and, whatever happens, I am the eating disorder I continue to battle. I am these things and the grief that consumes me today is the power that I can leverage to move towards acceptance tomorrow.

These photos were my way of taking charge of my own narrative and creating evidence that can debate the hate that consumes me. This is me, my body, who I am, and I can love it, accept it, and live with it.

Photo by Chelsee Taylor,
Makeup and hair by Robin-Miranda Vince, @robinskivinski

This is also me. I can be both.

I can be fabulous and awkward, fierce and anxious, beautiful and scared. I can choose some of the things that I am, battle against others, live with many.

This photo exudes the energy of someone who is sensual and confident and, honestly, loves their leg. Sometimes, it’s alright to stack the odds in your favour when you want to be something that you don’t feel. Book a photographer, organize the makeup artist, borrow that dress, and become everything you want to be.

Photo by Chelsee Taylor,
Makeup and hair by Robin-Miranda Vince, @robinskivinski

And this, this is also me. I am more even than these photos. I asked for this photo, chose this proof, and love very breath of it.

An orthodontic surgeon once told me that I smile with too much gum and that, while fixing a scheduled dental issue, could fix this as well. My parents brushed off this request and moved on. I suffered for months with the first real opportunity to change my body. Eventually, I decided that although I didn’t love my smile, it was my smile. I see it in the mirror and use it to greet friends. It’s the first impression I offer and how I laugh. I may not love it, but I don’t hate it…it is simply, me.

I asked for this photo because I wanted to see me. In case these photos became something more and I lost sight of my every day me, I wanted one photo that I could connect to. In the end, this photo completed the set. It is perfect, just like me.

So, here they are. Three of the photos that I booked, posed for, selected, and now own. They are gorgeous and fierce and joyful and make me want to write, which is the ultimate sign for me that I can be passionate about myself. This was an adventure of self-indulgence, vanity, and decadence. I could not be more proud.

Blog featured image

Photo by Chelsee Taylor,
Makeup and hair by Robin-Miranda Vince, @robinskivinski

Accepting Mental Illness as a Journey, Not a Quest

Mental Health

Growing up an aspiring fantasy author, I studied the many paths my characters could take. An adventure is a trip without a destination. A journey is where the trip itself matters most. A quest is a trip to accomplish a specific task. I dreamed of romantic journeys, wild adventures, and life changing quests. As a character in my own personal epic, mental illness was just another quest: something to overcome and move past. I did not just reject the idea that mental illness could be an ongoing journey, I completely ignored any consideration of it.

I have worn many labels in the form of my diagnoses: generalized anxiety, major depression, panic disorder, and, most recently, bulimia nervosa. Each label is a new quest, a new challenge to overcome. A series of quests to the “perfect mental health”. That was true, at least, until I sat down to an online mental health seminar titled The Imperfect Recovery.

My goal in attending this seminar was recovery: to beat bulimia and move past it once and for all. This workshop was aimed at” “imperfect recoveries”, and recovery was there in the title and thus essential to the plot. My quest was already laid out for me.

I closed my computer barely minutes in when the realization of the true title hit me. The Imperfect Recovery: they were talking about adventures, journeys…not quests. Accepting an imperfect recovery meant that the story might not end as nicely as I had hoped. A potentially never ending road of battles and…I closed my computer barely minutes in.

An imperfect recovery simply did not compute with my own, deeply held, need for perfection. Never properly analyzed, I still have no idea what this perfection meant. What is “perfect mental health”? The absence of mental illness? A never ending tirade of smiles and happy days?

As a health educator, I should have known that “perfect mental health” did not exist. As a health educator, I often describe mental health as being similar to physical health: there are good days and bad days, temporary injuries, chronic conditions, and sporadic pains. I held conversations with others in order to help them come to terms with mental health being an essential part of wellness, to overcome the burden of stigma, and to explore options for support before they were inevitably needed. I held the conversations, designed the posters, hosted the events, and yet still held on to my own internalized stigma. I would not accept good days and bad days, for I was on a quest for “perfect mental wellness”; mental illness would never be chronic, not for me.

As I battled with my latest diagnosis, bulimia nervosa, The Imperfect Recovery hit on deeply held beliefs that I had never fully acknowledged: my need for perfection and my consequently internalized mental health stigma. Although not all mental illness will be chronic, I had never properly considered that mine might be.

If perfection is defined as the complete lack of mental illness (which I would argue it’s not), we are setting ourselves up for inevitable failure. It was gently pointed out to me by my therapist that, like physical illness, the complete lack of illness is sometimes impossible. For someone with Type 1 Diabetes, this would require a new pancreas. For me, a new mind. Perfection is an impossible quest.

But, the loss of perfection does not mean the loss of joy. Similarly, accepting a life with mental illness is not giving up. It is accepting just one battle in your life, one opportunity to fight, one story where you strength will shine. It is the first chapter of an epic saga.

I can try to find joy in progress. I can celebrate every small accomplishment and search for room for innovation in every setback. My imperfect recovery with mental illness will include trials and tribulations, good days and bad, and I can continue to grow through each and every one. I can accept this journey that stands in front of me. This is not a quest that I am failing at because I have not reached the end – this is a journey where the trip matters most and a set of adventures to explore. Perhaps I will never reach my destination, but I can find joy in the constant innovation and creativity that it takes to move forward each day. Acceptance is not done – I will have to practice it every day. But, I am on the journey and that brings me joy.

What I’ll Say to You, But Never to Me

Mental Health

I’ll say this to you, but can’t say this to me: you are strong, you are fierce, you are capable.

I’ll say this to you, but never to me: I believe in you, I love you, you can do this.

The words we say to others go far beyond hypocrisy. They are ingrained in the very being of who we are and what we are not: it’s ok to love others and wrong to love yourself. It is not hypocritical, but instead two distinct beasts. Love is not equal, not deserved, not worthy. Love is a gift that can only be given, never taken or accepted. We are alone in this battle where we hold up the world and tear down ourselves. This is what I’ll say to me, but will never say to you.

Because you deserve the love that is the greatest of all, which is that which you’ve given to me. Your love that supports me and holds me in my most painful moments is something that I want for you. Every tear, heartbreak, and empty scream that stands before you is worthy of your own love. The love you give to me is the greatest, most powerful gift. It embodies me to continue and persevere into the darkness. It is both the lantern in my hand and the hope at the end. I want you to feel this. I want you to see this. I want you to have this. Your love is the greatest, so please, accept it yourself.

I know who I’m saying this to as I write these words. I can see you and I know I want to say it.

You are the one who spent the day crying but won’t tell me you spent the day crying because a moment of peace is worth the denial. We talk about our personal battles as if we are standing back to back in broken chain mail armor, our shields shaking as two very distinct armies approach us, one from either direction. They won’t touch the other; no, these armies want just one: you or me. These are two very different wars waging violently, but we have chosen to fight them, back to back, in broken chain mail armour, our shields shaking.

I know who I’m saying this to as I write these words. I can’t see you, but I know I want you to hear it.

You are a whisper on a computer screen, not yet brave enough or ready to turn on your camera. But when my voice warbles and whimpers as I ask for help, your words pour through the chat to hold me together. You are not one, but many people with your own plots, antagonists, and chapters left to tell. But in my story you are one: the one that shares their hardships and advice and love. The greatest love.

I know who I’m saying this to as I write these words. I can feel you in who I am and in who I want to be.

You are the one running through the trees beside me, a fairy, a wizard, a princess, tripping over roots and calling out so our fantasies can be shared together. We walked together for the beginning and as I watch you take your own path, I worry. I worry that you don’t realize you were my guardian on the playground, and that you won’t protect yourself. I worry that that you won’t hear your pride in me, and not feel it in your own bones. I worry that you won’t see the light in the fantasies that you built that built me, as these fantasies that let me thrive could do the same for you.

Yes, I will say these things to you, but can’t say them to me. I will never say them to me.

Unless, of course, you tell me to. Because as I write these words, I know you write them too. Our love is for each other, but never for ourselves. This letter is the love that I can give you, but not me. The question of why is not the point. I write this letter so that you can read it and love, but maybe I can read it and do the same. I can love you, and you can love me, and you should love you, and…

This letter is the love that I can show you, but not me.

Not yet.

Not today.  

But, maybe, with your love…maybe even with my love…tomorrow.

Why Isn’t My Bitmoji Fat?

Mental Health

Why isn’t my Bitmoji fat?

Bitmojis, although currently used more often by mothers, aunts, and teachers, used to be hip, cool, and a fun way of signing off emails or replying to messages. Bitmojis are small cartoon versions of yourself that act as personalized emojis. Apparently, the app is still on my phone. In a moment of boredom, I opened said app and flipped through the fun designs, ultimately fixating on, as I often do, body shape. As it turns out, my Bitmoji is thin. My Bitmoji is skinny. I, on the other hand, am not. I knowingly designed my Bitmoji to not only not be fat, but to distinctly not look like me or my body.

This isn’t a new phenomenon. If I still owned a Wii, the question would instead state: “why isn’t my Mii fat?” I have designed all personas of myself to hide this particular aspect of my body. I have lived in denial and hate to the point that I actively change the way I portray myself.

Am I fat?

I am not in a healthy enough mental state to google what qualifies as fat; seeing any numbers or ranges would simply send me into a self-hate, anxiety spiral. I, of course, think that I am fat. I compare myself to bodies and see myself as fat. When I ignore my therapist’s advice and weigh myself, the number screams “fat”. While this doesn’t necessarily mean that I am fat by all standards, why do I care? This is the real question, “why do I care?”, not “am I fat?”. This is one word, one descriptor: why have I given it such immense power?

“Don’t talk to my friend like that”, I scream.

I wrote the title before realizing this statement could go two ways. When I was younger and more naïve, I would scream this at people who called my friends “fat”. How dare they insult my friends. Now, older and slightly less naïve to the world of fatphobia and diet culture, I might yell the very same thing at a friend who said they hated their own “fat body” (still used as an insult, instead at themselves). Because how dare they use a simple physical descriptor like “fat” as an insult when it isn’t. Fat is your body type, nothing more. Fat is beautiful. Fat is sexy. Fat is healthy. Fat is strong, passionate, and fierce. None of these terms are mutually exclusive with being “fat”. I see other people who may define themselves as fat or plus size, and I have no trouble seeing their beauty.

And, yet, I can’t hear my own words.

Hypocrisy is really not fun.

Let’s name it: internalized fatphobia

Welcome to my journey of battling against internalized fatphobia. The world has taught me that fat is wrong, and if I am fat, I am wrong. I have bought into the message of my oppressors that my body weight defines my self-worth.

Do I truly believe that hating myself will allow me to be accepted into a world I don’t want and don’t believe in?

Why isn’t my Bitmoji fat? Why can’t I design something that is supposed to look like me, to actually look like me?

I want to not hate myself. I want to not hate my fat self. I am trying to not hate my fat self.

So, here’s to trying. Here’s to faking it ‘till you make it. Here’s to hearing my own words that fat is beautiful, because it is, and actually listening. Here’s to my fat bitmoji.

Pink Hair, Tattoos, and Eating Disorders

Mental Health

There’s something about being wild.

Something about pink hair, tattoos, and red lipstick that screams freedom. Freedom in the same way it feels to have wind in your hair and to laugh into the future. In a life often weighed down by anxiety, depression and bulimia, this freedom is compelling. But, I don’t dye my hair pink as a form of escape to a better world. Nor are my tattoos a desperate grab for control over the final pieces of my life. When you see me wearing red lipstick, think not of my illness. Think instead of the freedom you feel when the wind blows through your hair.

Why do I dye my hair? I dye my hair to experiment with who I am and what I see in the mirror. A changing appearance can make me feel like a different person: one with spunk, sass, and confidence. At the same time, my hair reminds me of who I am. That I can be the vixen beckoning to me in my dreams. Because of my pink hair, for the first time in months, I took selfies today. Yes, this practice is mocked by many as self-obsession and vanity. As someone obsessed with self-hate and tearing apart her body, I could really use a little bit of that vanity. And, for the first time in months, I liked the photos I took. I liked my wild hair. I saw my smile lines and laughed. I chose outfits that complemented how I felt, powerful and coy. Liking your body is hard with an eating disorder. These photos showed not my body, but instead me. Hello, me. You look great.

Why did I get my tattoos? This is a question I am sure my mother asks herself every time they flash under my shirt sleeve. My tattoos have many explanations. One is owning my body, marking myself with who I am and want to be. Another is a grounding mechanism, to remind me of the choices I can make to shape my world. The final reason: I like them. Don’t let anyone tell you that a better reason is needed. My tattoos are simple and small…for now. They are perfect.

Why do I wear red lipstick? This is often my coping strategy with stress: exams, presentations, even late night studying. I adorn red lipstick or fancy earrings to remind me that as I wear them, I have my life together enough to succeed. I am not lost, I am wearing red lipstick. Red lips laugh as my earrings flash in the moonlight, and suddenly I am heading somewhere much bigger than my desk chair or couch. This is a strategy I picked up in high school that I carry forward to late nights writing grant proposals. It is a reminder that even when everything is falling apart, you can still pick up the pieces to put it back together. As I battle against bulimia, I now realize that I seem to have forgotten to try this coping strategy. Mirrors have instead become the bane of my existence. Perhaps, tomorrow I will put on that pair of giant hoop earrings and flirt with the reflection I claim to despise. There’s a chance that I won’t, but also a chance that I will.

There’s something about being wild that endears itself to me. Something about my goody-two-shoes, controlled persona that likes small acts of deviation. I’m not jumping out of planes or swimming with sharks, but my hair is pink. As a reminder, this is my wild, not yours. These acts may not even qualify to the rest of the world as wild. This is my door to wide open fields, distant mountains, and cool sea breezes. Even during the darkest of times, I can still imagine the wind in my pink hair and laugh into the future.

Dirty Secrets: What We Can Learn from Soils


What goes on in the secret lives of soils? While people passing by are brushing off the dirt from their shoes, what is being brushed off with it? One of the most fundamental resources on our earth is under our feet with every step, and we so rarely look down.

Soils are the basis of life on land. Nearly one quarter of all species on Earth live in soils. Most of these organisms are too small to see with the living eye – if counted, there would be more microorganisms in one gram of healthy soils than there are people on Earth. However, only one percent of these soil microorganism species have been identified (source). Given the vast knowledge we have already gained from soils, scientists eagerly await the promise offered by this mysterious 99% of soil life. But the question of “what can soils do for us” is limited and too utilitarian. Instead, let’s ask “what can soils teach us”, because we have a lot to learn.

Wise words, and inspiration for this blog, from @yaminapressler on Twitter

Relationships with early life

Soil’s secrets began billions of years ago. As the first living things adapted to move from water to land, soils were the silent partners in the wonder of evolution. The evolution of early photosynthetic life, like stromatolites, contributed to the formation of soils rich in nutrients and organic matter. Soils can reveal new information about this early life: frozen soil unearthed in a receding iceberg in Greenland hints at the existence of photosynthetic microbes 2 billion years earlier than we had previously thought (3.7 billion years ago, as opposed to 3.5 billion).

As life continued to evolve, evidence was captured in soil fossils, called paleosols. These fossils are evidence for mutualistic, beneficial relationships between soil and plants. Plants helped break down rock for nutrients and create soil structure. In turn, soils returned these nutrients to plants and provided water, oxygen, and support. Forget secret celebrity romances; the relationship between plants and soils is what we need to be talking about.

Learn more from my blog for the Canadian Society of Soil Science: How did the first soils evolve?

Filtering dirty water…with dirt

Believe it or not, soil is one of the best water filters out there. As water seeps deeper into the ground, infiltrating the soil, different size particles, like sand or clay, physically filter out contaminants. Most soils also have a slight chemical charge which attracts and captures chemicals (like ammonium) with the opposite charge. The soil keeps the pollutants as the water passes through. Furthermore, soil life, such as bacteria, may use the pollutant and transform it into something less harmful. This process of bioremediation can be used to clean up oil spills. For example, in the Deepwater Horizon Oil spill, microbes like  Alcanivorax borkumensis were used because they naturally remove oil hydrocarbons to use as energy. Learning from soil, many treatment facilities use the same physical, chemical, and biological processes that soil does to filter water.

I love doing this at-home experiment building your own water fiilter! This image comes from

Soil civil war and antibiotics

Soil microorganisms aren’t necessarily at peace – they are constantly battling each other for survival, space, and resources. Fungi, bacteria, and other critters are engaged in an ongoing soil civil war. However, once we discovered this war, humans were able to harness the microorganism’s weapons: antibiotics. Antibiotics are chemical compounds that inhibit the growth of or destroy microorganisms and are often produced by different microorganisms as a weapon. Today, antibiotics are one of the most common classes of medicinal drugs and most of these antibiotics came from soil (source).

Even as we increasingly see diseases evolve to be stronger than antibiotics, called antibiotic resistance, soil may still hold the answers. In 2014, researchers engaged in the fight against antibiotic resistance found that a compound naturally produced by a fungus inactivates one antibiotic resistance gene, once again making the bacteria vulnerable to antibiotics. If we are going to fight against microbes, we don’t have to do it alone: soil microbes have been fighting against each other since the beginning.

Climate change superpowers

Soil has even more secret superpowers that urgently need to be discussed: the power of carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in soil as organic carbon. Soil is particularly good at storing carbon: Earth’s soils store about 2,500 gigatons of carbon, almost 3 times more than that found in the atmosphere.

All of this matters because atmospheric carbon, like carbon dioxide and methane, are greenhouse gases causing climate change. Soil carbon sequestration is a relatively natural way of removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere with fewer impacts on land and water, less need for energy, and lower costs. Soils remove about 25% of the world’s fossil fuel emissions each year. However, soils are losing carbon – thawing of frozen permafrost, agricultural practices, deforestation, and draining of the peatlands have led to soil losing 50 to 70 percent of the carbon they once held (source). This is why much of soil science research focus on how carbon moves into and out of soil.

A cool interview I did with a soil scientist about the role of agriculture systems in greenhouse gas emissions

So, look down. Pay attention. Appreciate the world beneath your feet. Since the beginning, everything on Earth relates back to soil. From growing food to preventing erosion, and from antibiotics to climate change, soil is the behind-the-scenes hero supporting Earth as we know it. Soil can teach us more than we know to ask about. It shouldn’t be a secret how important soil is – let’s talk about the dirt on soils.

What did I miss? A lot. Check out this infographic from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on all that soil can teach us, and follow the Canadian Society of Soil Science on Twitter for more #SoilScience (@CSSS_Soils).

Step Up: The Audience Analysis Chart and Tips for SciComm


Have you ever wanted a redo on your #SciComm? #SciRevival is a series where I reflect on my past work and try to make it better. School papers, projects, blogs, articles – all fair game. This blog was written for a new media course during my Masters in Science Communication. It was highly academic, and I refused to use illustrations – this is a (slightly) more casual take.

We all want to change the world.

I used to dream of standing up at rallies for climate change denial or posting to anti-vaxx message boards. I would come prepared with an eloquent speech that championed science and critical thinking. I would build powerful arguments as, one by one, heads turned towards me. These dreams would end with overwhelming applause as you could actually see opinions change to have faith in science. Global warming emissions plummet, vaccination rates soar, and scientists become the new celebrities.

I still dream of these impacts, but not quite so idealistically. That’s not to say I don’t want to change behaviour. It’s just that changing behaviour, apparently, takes more than just an eloquent speech. It requires thoughtful and purposeful planning. It requires you to step up – one step at a time. One of the most impactful lessons I learned in school was how to use the World Health Organization’s audience analysis chart to plan for these steps.

Chart breaking down audience into four groups
1. Blockers or active resistors (passionate and energetic but don't agree with your message)
2. Champions or active supporters (passionate and energetic and agree with your message)
3. Avoiders or passive resistors (passive and not energetic and disagree with your message)
4. Silent boosters or passive supporters (passive and not energetic and agree with your message)
Image adapted from the World Health Organization

Know your audience

Everyone is different. Your beliefs, your values, what you already know, and your actual situation will all impact how you interpret the message being thrown at you. This is why “know your audience” is basically the motto of science communication. Your audience is who you are trying to talk to; this WHO chart helps you understand how someone might interpret your message by organizing people into four groups. These groups depend on whether people agree with your cause and how much they care about that belief.

  • Blockers are active resistors who oppose your cause. They are the ones screaming on the other side of protests or family dinner tables.
  • Champions are active supporters who passionately agree with your cause. These are the champions who donate money, show up to rallies, and avidly retweet.
  • Avoiders are passive resistors. They disagree with the cause but don’t usually act on it.
  • Silent boosters are passive supporters. They agree with the cause but would rather not cause waves or say anything about it.

These groups can apply to anything. Considering what your specific audience believes and where they may fall on this chart helps you develop a plan for who you are talking to.

Remember that it’s not you against the world

Although sometimes it may feel like it, a lack of visible supporters doesn’t mean that everyone is against you.

The example I often turn to is vaccination hesitancy. Think first of the people writing articles about vaccine development, tweeting #VaccinesWork, or actually providing the vaccines: these are our champions. Although everyone is not a champion, that doesn’t make the rest of the world anti-vaxxers (or blockers in the WHO’s chart). In fact, silent boosters are just as crucial to protecting our community. These are the ones who quietly receive all recommended vaccinations. You can’t hear them, you may not be able to see them, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t supporting your cause.

For vaccinations, the potential for action is the most promising. Science communication efforts often focuses on the avoiders, not the blockers, for this very reason. They are the ones who don’t currently get vaccinated because it “doesn’t matter” or it’s just “too much effort.” They’re right on the verge of believing, and are ready to step up.

Opinions shift in small steps

To change a blocker to a champion with one article is a lot to ask – too much to ask. You don’t go from believing vaccines kill to thinking vaccines are the biggest marvel in public health history overnight. The rule of thumb is that you can shift people one category: from a blocker to an avoider, or an avoider to a silent booster. You can help your audience by not forcing wildly different beliefs on them in one moment. Instead, focus on small changes and practical, realistic things they can start doing in their life.

Although these changes may seem small, each step has an impact. A blocker becoming an avoider means one less vocal voice persuading people to turn against science. An avoider becoming a silent booster means one more person getting vaccinated. As a communicator, you get to choose who you will focus on and what your goal is.

Chart breaking down audience into four groups for a vaccination hesitancy example
1. Blockers or active resistors are the anti-vaxxers (passionate and energetic but don't agree with your message)
2. Champions or active supporters or tweeting #VaccinesWork (passionate and energetic and agree with your message)
3. Avoiders or passive resistors  don't vaccinate and don't talk about it (passive and not energetic and disagree with your message)
4. Silent boosters or passive supporters vaccinate and don't talk about it (passive and not energetic and agree with your message)
Audience analysis chart for vaccination hesitancy (Image adapted from the World Health Organization)

Choose your focus purposefully

This is the time to sit back and consider what you want to get out of your work. A good communications plan is specific: one intended outcome, one audience. This idea usually means choosing one of the WHO’s four groups.

Let’s get back to vaccination hesitancy. Many campaigns choose to focus on the avoiders to cause behaviour change and immediately affect vaccination rates. A campaign may focus on the avoider’s complacency by creating new schedules or reminder apps to make it easier to vaccinate your children.

However, a compelling message for avoiders may be entirely ineffective with blockers. If your goal is to decrease the number of blockers, a different campaign should be used.

I had the chance to develop a test science centre exhibit about vaccination hesitancy. The eventual exhibit had people press buttons to watch how vaccinations stop disease spread. The message was intended to be simple: “you can protect others by being vaccinated.” This message isn’t supposed to increase vaccination rates. Instead, we hoped the blockers would think about vaccines now being connected to their friends’ and family’s safety.

Image of me with the exhibit I designed about vaccination hesitancy, titled "Protect the Herd"
Protect the Herd, an test exhibit I designed for the Science North science centre

My exhibit wasn’t perfect. But choosing my audience and knowing what I wanted to say was a good first step to developing something that might one day work. In the end, the WHO’s audience analysis chart is just one more example of how you can know your audience.

Don’t worry about changing a country’s polls overnight or that one family member’s opinions over one holiday meal. Spend your energy where it can have a meaningful impact and choose your actions purposefully. Know who you are talking to and why you are having that conversation. Purposeful communication can cause meaningful change.

Let’s change the world one step at a time.

Movie pitch from @SoleLeeCosas (Twitter)